Penard Labs

The Fascinating World of Amoebae
Granofilosea Cavalier-Smith and Bass 2009
With very delicate reticulopodia bearing frequent regular extrusomes. Sometimes biciliated or with biciliated swarmers.

1. Clathrulinidae Claus 1874
Heliozoans with an extracellular and usually stalked lorica. Extracellular capsule or lorica attached to substrate with axopodia emerging from perforations; kinetocyst extrusomes along axopodia; biciliated and amoeboid stages; can be colonial.

1.1. Clathrulina Cienkowski 1867
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Clathrulina elegans Cienkowski 1867

2. Heliomorphidae Cavalier-Smith and Bass 2009
Biciliate freshwater hetero­trophic cells with axopodia. The centrosome, from which axopodial axonemes emanate, is located in a deep depression or pit on the anterior face of the nucleus.

2.1. Heliomorpha Cavalier-Smith and Bass 2009
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Heliomorpha sp.

3. Microgromiidae De Saedeleer 1934 (incertae sedis)
Testate amoebae with a hyaline organic shell that is usually on one side attached to a substratum.

3.1. Microgromia Hertwig 1874 (incertae sedis)
Shell hyaline and organic; spherical or pyriform; with neck that has a basal septum with lateral opening. Filopodia with extrusomes that are able to brach and anastomose. May produce biciliated swarmers. Sometimes in a colony with cells able to form a anastomosing reticulum.
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Microgromia socialis Hertwig and Lesser 1874

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Microgromia sp.

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Microgromia sp.

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Microgromia sp.

3.2. Apogromia De Saedeleer 1934 (incertae sedis)
Shell hyaline, brownish and organic; flask-shaped; with or without neck; single terminal aperture. Fine branched pseudopodia with extrumsomes, sometimes anastomosing.
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Apogromia sp.

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Apogromia sp.

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Apogromia sp.

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Apogromia sp.


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Apogromia sp.

3.3. Microcometes Cienkowsky 1876 (incertae sedis)
Body globular; shell flexible and hyaline with a small number of apertures; two short cilia.
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Microcometes paludosa Cienkowsky 1876

3.4. Paralieberkuehnia De Saedeleer 1934 (incertae sedis)
Shell hyaline and organic; flask-shaped.
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Paralieberkuehnia sp.

3.5. Belaria De Saedeleer 1934 (incertae sedis)
Shell hyaline and organic; separated in two compartments with a diaphragm; one side attached to the substratum; with a neck.
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Belaria bicorpor De Saedeleer 1934

3.6. Ditrema De Saedeleer 1934 (incertae sedis)
Shell hyaline and organic; one side attached to the substratum; two opposite apertures with a small neck.
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Ditrema longicollis De Saedeleer 1934

3. Limnofilida Cavallier-Smith and Bass 2008
Small freshwater heterotrophic cells with extremely slender, branching granular filopodia, appressed to the substratum during feeding.

3.1. Limnofila Cavallier-Smith and Bass 2008
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Limnofila oxoniensis Bass and Cavallier-Smith 2009